Topic : « Prostitution »
Année scolaire 2016-2017
- I. HISTORY OF PROSTITUTION
- II. SOME ADVANTAGES AND INCONVENIENT OF PROSTITUTION
- III. TYPES OF PROSTITUTION
- IV. PROSTITUTION IN BURKINA FASO
- V. SOME SOLUTIONS TO FIGHT AGAINST PROSTITUTION IN BURKINA FASO
Prostitution (from the Latin prostitutio) is a form of economic-sexual interchange punctual, explicit and previously negotiated. Although practiced by members of both sexes, it is mostly exercised by women with men. The legal status of prostitution varies from country to country and can also be classified as illegal in the legal professional activities. In 2010, annual income from prostitution is estimated at more than $ 187 billion1. One to two million women around the world are sold each year as sexual objects for prostitution through international networks, most of them coming from poor countries to be exploited in rich countries2.
From a legislative point of view, we can distinguish three conceptions of prostitution, producing three political approaches of the states on its exercise: regulation, abolitionism (and its neo-abolitionist variant) and prohibitionism.
Prostitution is regularly the subject of intense controversy between politicians, intellectuals and feminists who are in favor of a legalization of the activity and those who are in favor of its prohibition3. Thus, the American philosopher Judith Butler affirms that "every feminist worthy of the name should take care of the unionization of the prostitutes" and regrets that the abolitionist and prohibitionist positions deprive "of the capacity to consent"
- I. HISTORY OF PROSTITUTION
In Rome, as elsewhere in the Mediterranean basin, those who possess slaves can use them as they wish, since the slave is a private property. The slave woman is also excluded from the scope of the laws on adultery: her companion can not accuse her, whether her lover is the master or a third person. Moreover, the laws condemning the masters who prostitute their slaves are so ineffective that they will often be reproclaimed from the 1st to the 4th century, as well as the laws that treat adultery as sexual relations between the mistress and her slave. Prostitution, however, continues to flourish in Rome, where it occurs in many forms: prostitutes are housed in houses marked with lighted candles during opening hours, 8 in hostels, lodges, or in the street, in front of Arcades (called fornix hence the term fornication) as before the door of their domiciles. In brothels, the client may exchange a type of token, called spintria, against a specific sexual favor9. Very early, from the 2nd century BC. Prostitutes are registered in a special register and must be licensed. Civilly, they are struck with indignity. Their condition varies, from the most miserable slaves, to the courtiers and courtesans of luxury, whose services are very expensive. Their livestock is renewed by the slave trade fueled by wars and piracy: in Delos, 10,000 slaves are sold every day, and in the empire there are tens of thousands of children and adolescents who supply each Year this fun market.
Judeo-Christian societies have known the prohibitionist condemnation since the early days of Judaism. This ban imposed itself in the Roman Empire in parallel with the adoption of Christianity. Abolitionist measures, despite their obvious inefficiency, were maintained until the twelfth century. On that date, a relative period of tolerance begins, accompanied by appropriate regulations. In the sixteenth century, as a result of the ravages of syphilis from the New World, which affects all the strata of society, the reproach on sexuality outside the bonds of marriage reappears strongly throughout Europe. The nineteenth century saw the emergence of a certain state tolerance and a legal and sanitary framework. At the end of the nineteenth century, with the fighting of Josephine Butler, modern abolitionism was born in Victorian Britain.
France, which was the country of origin of the regulation, changed direction in 1946 and adopted an abolitionist regime, following the law known as "Marthe Richard".
- II. SOME ADVANTAGES AND INCONVENIENT OF PROSTITUTION
There are many reasons that a woman becomes a prostitute, but it is usually because there are no other options. Women are often subjugated by pimps because they have debts or drug habits. Once they have gotten into the life, it is very hard to get out. This is often because the pimps are abusive and keep the girls on drugs. It is also a dangerous life because of the tremendous health and safety risks.
Well, first and foremost there is monetary value. The prostitute is earning a living by having sex with people. For the prostitute, this may seem like the only the only option for survival. In addition, the prostitute may get some sort of emotional fulfillment from it. This is most certainly not saying that it is a healthy fulfillment, but one none the less.
According to Sabine Dusch27, prostitution would generate a global turnover of 60 billion euros. In 1998, the United Nations28 estimated that each year four million people would engage in prostitution, generating between US $ 5 billion and US $ 7 billion in profits for criminal groups.
Prostitution is considered a problem because it is often in the hands of organized crime. Prostitutes may be victims of a form of slavery. Prostitutes are also affected by sexually transmitted diseases and the covetousness of their income. Some drug users, mostly heroin or crack, get their drugs mainly through prostitution. They get money for sex, which is then used to buy drugs. The majority of these drug addicts take part in street prostitution because they do not usually have the resources to work independently in a brothel or to be callgirls, and many brothels do not want to employ drug addicts.
For street residents, street prostitution is often very badly lived because, in terms of image, it would have the indirect consequence of devaluing the properties of the neighborhood. Residents] sometimes complain of nuisance caused by prostitutes and are supportive of the option of cantonment of prostitution in brothels or specific urban areas, but this option comes under the logic NIMBY (Not in my back yard - "not in my backyard") and has as its sole aim, as well as the repression of soliciting, to drive prostitution out of public space and relegate it to clandestine places or remote areas where prostitutes will be even more vulnerable.
III. TYPES OF PROSTITUTION
1) Window prostitution
Window prostitution is typical of cold countries where the prostitute exposes himself in light clothing in a shop window. The negotiation is done by gestures through the window or through a window provided for this purpose. It is a form of prostitution particularly widespread in the Netherlands and Belgium
2) Street prostitution
Street prostitution, taping, involves soliciting clients by walking on public roads, pretending to hitchhike or sitting (personal chair, building entrance staircase, etc.), but generally In a seductive outfit. The most conspicuous form is limited by the police to certain streets and schedules, known as the hot quarter, but some discreet prostitutes operate in the neighborhoods passing by.
3) call girl or escort prostitutes
A call girl or escort prostitutes on a phone call. The prostitute can receive the client at home or move. The numbers are disseminated in small advertisements in newspapers or increasingly over the Internet. The lady can be independent or exercise through an agency. Some escort-girls called "luxury" can, by means of finance take the plane and thus have an activity and a worldwide fame
Slaughter involves prostituting a lot of times a day with very low prices. Slaughterhouses were most often frequented by wealthy clients: military, sailors and migrants. Since a few years this practice makes a comeback through the "towers": escorts from the eastern countries settle down for a short time in a hotel in a big European city and receive a large number of customers per day (often more than 10)
IV.PROSTITUTION IN BURKINA FASO
Sex is sold and bought like buns in Dapoya, district located in the heart of the capital Ouagadougou. From Zoom-Koom street to Dimdolobson Avenue, passing by the Sankaryaaré market, "the market" of pleasure is practiced to the detriment of the tranquility of the populations "With 2000 F or 3000 F CFA, you come to Dapoya , You will find a woman, "says Edmond Wango, young man of the sector. Young Wango thus situates the dimension of the phenomenon of prostitution in this part of the capital. The multiplicity and diversity of the maquis and the dance bars make Dapoya a world apart, once night has come. From Monday to Sunday, with a peak on Saturday, sex workers sell the fun.
It is 6:45 pm: the first sex workers arrive. They come, one by foot, the other by taxi. Generally well dressed, they hold plastic bags or small handbags. They enter a courtyard that serves as their place of service. There, they put on their working clothes: mini skirts hardly covering the buttocks; A high highlights the shape of the chest. Some are wearing panties. They set foot near the roadway. It is 7 pm, the shadow penetrates. The scrubs in the surroundings make the decibels rise. Small restaurants, kiosks, sellers of skewers and chickens unpack their goods after taking care of the housework. Customer solicitation begins.
Sex workers are being manipulated. In a vehicle, on a motorcycle, on foot or on a bicycle, one can not use the Zoom-Koom street, without being either pulled by the end of the shirt or apostrophized by "pssst ... pssst ...". Most expatriates, these sex sellers express themselves in a language of Molière approximative. "Come on, we're going to do ...", "Sir, worked on it," "You do not want to fuck ...? "Are commonly used terms of invitation. Those who have no notion in French use gestural language to make themselves understood, when a client is trying to sit in the bar next to the court. There, they approach the customer, pat him on the shoulder and indicate the direction of the rooms. When the client pretends not to pay attention to them, they insist on mimicking the sexual act with the fingers. Some passers-by are obliged to reject offers at a respectable distance from the girls. Others use the strong way to get rid of it. Those who reject the advances in a violent manner are covered with insults and vociferations.
The pass makes 2000 F. "When a client wants to do well, it's 3000 or 5000 F", explains A.N, a sex worker. For her, "to do well" is to put on Eve's outfit. "Touching the breasts and doing is 3000; Complete (Editor's note: willing to answer all the fantasies of the customer), it is 5000 F ".
Like a fashion show, customers come in and stand out with the girls. In the courtyard, the rooms are aligned. The interior decoration of the room is sober: a mattress on the floor, at the bedside, "kitchen utensils": pots of ointment, packets of condoms, sachets used as trash and disposable handkerchiefs, all on Odor background of ointment. A standing fan stirs the air.
V.SOME SOLUTIONS TO FIGHT AGAINST PROSTITUTION IN BURKINA FASO
Our country would gain by putting itself in time. We do not know or prefer to silence the evils of our society. Yet, regulation of the world of prostitution could be beneficial for many reasons. Thus, instead of attempting the impossible by wanting to close the "dark rooms", it would not be stupid to find perimeters where prostitutes can exercise in all tranquility without attempting to moral education of families. Beyond these perimeters the authorities indicated will know what to do offenses.
In the same framework of regulation, professional prostitutes could be provided with cards to discourage students, married women who occasionally "fall" into the trade. The regulation and shelving of prostitutes would also be a means of enhancing the image of citizens in certain neighborhoods such as Sikasso-cira in Bobo-Dioulasso and Dapoya in Ouagadougou, where all women are likely to be "sellers" sex.